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Gender differences in negotiations significantly contribute to the labor-market outcomes of men and women and consequently perpetuate the gender wage gap. Decades of research suggest persistent gender differences in both the willingness to initiate negotiations as well as negotiation outcomes. There is a consensus that the male advantage in negotiations is afforded by the overlap between the conditions of labor-market negotiations and the male gender role. Under certain conditions, however, for instance, when negotiating on behalf of someone else, we find that gender differences disappear. These findings suggest that gender differences in negotiation outcomes are variable, highly context-dependent, and can be reduced with the application of carefully constructed nudges.

This PhD project aims at understanding the conditions that give rise to gender differences in salary negotiations. Upon having identified these specific conditions, the goal is to translate our findings into nudges that can be applied to reduce gender differences in negotiation outcomes. This PhD project will be guided by the following questions: Which structural, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors contribute to differential negotiation outcomes in men and women? Which motivations drive men and women in negotiations? Which structural changes can be implemented to ensure fair and equal pay for men and women? How can we nudge to reduce gender differences in salary negotiations?