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Paul Elzinga

Formalizing the concepts of crimes and criminals


Formal Concept Analysis was originally introduced as a mathematical theory by Rudolf Wille in 1982. We performed a semantic text mining analysis on papers in which FCA was used by the authors from 2003 to 2009 and revealed FCA has found its way in numerous publications in knowledge discovery and information retrieval. We found a gap in the existing literature, today 80% to 90% of the information available in the police resides in textual form. We investigated the possibilities of
FCA as a human-centered instrument for distilling new knowledge from these data. In 2005 the Amsterdam-Amstelland Police Department introduced Intelligence-led Policing, which has resulted in an increasing number of general reports every year. Until now, the general reports are hardly used by the criminal intelligence departments. Intelligence-led policing, as is defined by Ratcliffe (2008), does not show the dynamics of the Intelligence-led policing process. We introduce the Concept-Knowledge design theory to map the 3-i model of Ratcliffe on the design square of Hatchuell (2003). The design square is also used to illustrate the process of knowledge discovery of large amounts of unstructured police reports.