This dissertation mainly contains articles on business reengineering and organizational learning that have been published over the last ten years. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 focus on reengineering, while chapters 5 and 6 consider knowledge and learning across markets and within organizations. Each chapter is self-contained and can be read as a separate essay. There is, however, another way to approach this book. If reengineering is interpreted as a recommendation to “organize around process” and learning to “organize around knowledge and the construction of meaning,” then both subjects can be viewed as developments in organization theory, each of which presents a different approach to division of labor and coordination issues. Hence the title of this dissertation: It looks back on the rise and fall of business reengineering in management literature and practice, and forward to the challenges learning and innovation pose for current organizations and societies.