"Patterns of Leadership Behavior: A Person-Centered Approach to Assessing Leadership Stylistic Profiles Across Gender and Level"
|Date||15 February 2022|
Recent scholars have pointed out and criticized the apparent proliferation of overlapping leader behavior constructs (e.g., transformational, servant, and ethical leadership). Moreover, prior attempts to propose a comprehensive model of leader behaviors have been limited imposing of a priori structures or reliance on variable-centered analyses (e.g., factor analysis). In our study, we integrate the vast variety of leader behavior constructs to empirically determine six meta-categories. We then used bifactor latent profile analysis, which allows us to identify profiles with similar patterns in frequency of use across different leader behaviors, to empirically identify four leadership stylistic profiles. These are: (1) balanced; equal engagement across all behaviors, (2) controlling; focused on behaviors that control their followers, (3) entrepreneurial; focused on behaviors that cast vision and drive followers toward that vision, and (4) insular; focused on internal behaviors with little regard for external teams or environmental factors. Finally, we assessed for differences across genders and organizational levels. We found that females are more likely to utilize a balanced leadership style, and less likely to utilize insular and entrepreneurial styles. Additionally, higher-level managers were more likely than lower-level managers to utilize an entrepreneurial style, and less likely to utilize insular and controlling styles. Implications for future research and the advantages of person-centered analysis applied to leadership measurement are discussed.
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